Beyond the three lines of defense: The five lines of defense model for financial institutions
Georgios L. Vousinas*
National Technical University of Athens, School of Mechanical Engineering, Sector of Industrial Management & Operational Research, Greece
The purpose of this study is to provide an updated version of the widely accepted three lines of defense model (3LoD) to better apply for regulated financial institutions. The author proposes the five lines of defense model (5LoD) which consists of the existing three lines along with external audit and regulators (comprising the fourth and fifth line of defense respectively). In spite of the fact that the bodies forming the two additional lines of defense constitute the external lines of defense, there should be active in supervising and monitoring control issues within the organization, in strong cooperation with the internal lines. This calls for closer interaction among the internal auditors, external auditors and regulators in the design and implementation of an efficient and effective internal control system, aiming to strengthen the existing framework regarding the governance of modern financial institutions, which operate in a highly demanding regulated environment.
Keywords: Three lines of defense, Five lines of defense, Internal audit, External audit Regulator
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