ACRN Journal of Entrepreneurship Perspectives
Vol. 2, Issue 2, Oct. 2013, ISSN 2224-9729
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Entrepreneurship and Community Sustainability: The Chinese Migrant Experience in Australia
1 Jia Gao
1 Asia Institute, University of Melbourne
Keywords: Strategic entrepreneurship, community sustainability, socio-cultural entrepreneurship, business entrepreneurship, community economy
Abstract. Direct immigration from the Chinese mainland to Australia resumed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when tens of thousands of Chinese students were allowed to stay permanently in Australia. Since then, there have been numerous studies analysing various issues related to their settlement, and the Chinese have been portrayed in numerous ways, ranging from outsiders who were unable to assimilate, to hard-working citizens and a national economic asset. However, there are few analyses of how the Chinese had survived Australia’s worst post- war recession during much of the 1990s, and how their community has sustained itself and now become one of the model communities in Australia, where there is virtually no job guarantee in the name of free market, and with a long and strong tradition of anti-Chinese sentiment. This paper seeks to address the gaps in the existing research literature by examining relationships between entrepreneurship and community sustainability and their impact on the sustainability of the new Chinese migrant community in Australia. Entrepreneurship means different things to different people and in the case of this community, entrepreneurial activities are not only a means for economic survival, but also constructive socio-cultural processes shaping the development of the community and enriching community life. Based on the author’s longitudinal study of the experiences of new Chinese migrants in Australia since 1988, this paper opts to offer a broader analysis of the overall trends and key features of the new Chinese migration and their settlement experience in Australia, paying attention to how the Chinese have been mobilised in their new host country to engage in trade and small businesses and building the community economy.
The Impact of Finance on Entrepreneurship Growth in Nigeria: A Cointegration Framework
1 Russell Olukayode Christopher Somoye
1 Departments of Economics, Business and Finance, Crescent University, Abeokuta
Keywords: Finance, Entrepreneurship, Economic Growth, Sustainability, Cointegration, Banking, SMEs
Abstract. This paper evaluates the impact of finance on entrepreneurship growth in Nigeria using endogenous growth framework. The results show that the normalised long-run co-integrating equation supported by the short-run dynamics indicates that finance, interest rate, real gross domestic product, unemployment and industrial productivity are significant to entrepreneurship in Nigeria. The results also show a uni-directional Granger causal relationship and suggest that access to finance by entrepreneurship has significant relationship with economic growth in Nigeria. The paper therefore recommends the formulation of effective macroeconomic policy targeted to entrepreneurship financing and growth. The paper also recommends that monetary authorities should intervene indirectly by reducing Monetary Policy Rates (MPR) which will directly reduce the transaction costs of funds to entrepreneurship and industrial sectors.
“Are Successful Entrepreneurs Committed or motivated?” A Research Review Synchronyzing Commitment, Motivation and the Entrepreneur
1 Rahayu Tasnim, 2 Salleh Yahya, 3 Mariani Mohd Nor, 4 Hamdan Said, 5 Muhammad Nizam Zainuddin
1, 2 Faculty of Technology Management and Entrepreneurship Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
3, 4 Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
5 Faculty of Management, Multimedia University, Malaysia
Keywords: Entrepreneurial commitment, entrepreneurial motivation, entrepreneurial success, entrepreneurial performance.
Abstract: Our paper aims to abridge sound theoretical views and research trends from the literatures on commitment, motivation and entrepreneurship, and to conceptualize a model on Entrepreneurial Commitment.Recent researches of workplace behavior suggest commitment as a division of motivation where both constructs affect performance and are distinct in its own forms. Even so, studies synchronizing these two constructs in the entrepreneurship literature, however, have yet to surface. The separate roles of commitment and motivation in the entrepreneurial process are still ambiguous. In this light, a review on studies relating commitment, motivation and entrepreneurial performance is documented. The paper ends with a hypothetical model conceptualizing the antecedents of entrepreneurial commitment as well as the relationships between entrepreneurial commitment, motivation and entrepreneurial performance.Our work contributes to the underdeveloped, yet much anticipated knowledge on entrepreneurial commitment, benefitting future empirical studies aimed at understanding commitment and its associations with motivation, particularly in the successful entrepreneur.
Towards Economic Diversification: A National Innovation System for Trinidad and Tobago
1 Natasha Ramkissoon-Babwah
1 Department of Management Studies, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Trinidad
Keywords: National Innovation Systems, Developing Country, Entrepreneurship,
Abstract. This paper proposes the configuration of a national innovation system for the developing country of Trinidad and Tobago within the context of an economic diversification policy. While innovation has been accepted as a robust tool to create business enterprises that are sustainable, profitable and efficient, scant attention has been paid to the process of designing an appropriate structure to harness innovation for the developing countries of the Caribbean Region and by extension Trinidad and Tobago. The role that innovation is poised to play is important for the country as it deals with issues of economic stagnation, increasing poverty levels, resource stagnation and shrinking markets.This paper will address these issues by conducting a review of the key aspects and concepts of innovation and will bridge the current research gap by examining the concept of innovation from the developing country context, conducting a situational analysis of the innovation culture in Trinidad and Tobago and presenting recommendations to inculcate innovation to assist the developmental objectives of the country.