ACRN Journal of Entrepreneurship Perspectives
Vol. 1, Issue 1, Feb. 2012, ISSN 2224-9729
FOUNDING OR TRANSFORMING? - SOCIAL INTRAPRENEURSHIP IN THREE GERMAN CHRISTIAN BASED NPOS
1 Björn Schmitz, Project Director
2 Thomas Scheuerle, Research Associate
1 -2 University of Heidelberg, Centre for Social Investment, Germany
Abstract. Along with the increased discussions among scholarship about Social Entrepreneurship, the definitions strongly emphasize innovation, social change and social value creation by using economic means. Although researchers´ definitions on social entrepreneurship do not couple social entrepreneurship to the foundation of new organizations only empirical research overemphasizes those leaders that have started a new venture not long ago, often just studying those organizations or persons that have been selected by one of the practitioner groups or fellowship organizations. The effect is a vast neglect of social entrepreneurship within traditional organizations what is usually called social intrapreneurship. Here we present three German Christian based NPOs operating in the field of social integration and social services. The paper showcases that there is a vivid, promising and innovative potential within NPOs that is worth being investigated. We would like to contribute to a view that refocuses on well-established organizations as the social change agents with high leverage power, high experience (of practices and markets) and a reasonable acquaintance with risk. Deriving from these findings a research agenda will be presented.
Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship, Social Intrapreneurship, Non-profit organizations, Innovation, Risk
BUSINESS MODELS OF SOCIAL ENTERPRISE: A DESIGN APPROACH TO HYBRIDITY
1 Wolfgang Grassl, Professor of Business Administration, St. Norbert College, DePere, USA
Keywords: social enterprise, social entrepreneurship, hybrid enterprise, business models, business design, causality
Abstract. Terminological confusion about social entrepreneurship derives largely from the fact that social enterprises are structurally hybrids in several dimensions. Hybridity is their essential characteristic, and it fulfills an indispensable role. An approach is developed that does not rest on dichotomous distinctions by sectors or profit orientation. On the basis of a reconstruction of the essential components of entrepreneurship, a generic structure of social entrepreneurship is proposed which in turn is founded upon an enterprise ontology. It emphasizes the entrepreneurial nature of such ventures in the sense of real causation. Through various combinations between the components (among which are mission, target population, and markets), types of business models can be distinguished. At an emergent functional level, these design configurations allow for a typological distinction between various types of strategy. The proposed design framework allows for a categorization of social entrerprises and thus for explaining organizational pluralism while being founded on real distinctions in the social world rather than merely conceptual abstraction.
A SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURIAL MODEL FROM NIGERIA
1 Kemi Ogunyemi, Lecturer, Department of Strategy and Entrepreneurship, Lagos Business School, Nigeria
Abstract. Dees (1998) defines entrepreneurship as characteristic of people who adopt a mission to create and sustain social value; recognize and relentlessly pursue new opportunities to serve that mission; continuously innovate, adapt, and learn; act boldly and beyond their resources; and exhibit a high sense of accountability. He sees it as a solution to social issues left unresolved by government and philanthropists. Given the success of the social work carried out by Nike Davies Okundaye, a female Nigerian artist and entrepreneur, this paper investigates how her brand of social entrepreneurship measures up beside the extant literature, and whether it is replicable, especially in developing countries. If it is a good model, then it should be emulated and funding. The approach used is phenomenology (Moustakas, 1994), using secondary data about Nike’s work and parameters synthesized by Dees (1998) and Light (2005) seven years apart after deep analyses of the work of earlier scholars.
Keywords: social entrepreneurship; social change; value creation; talent
THE PROCESS OF FINANCING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: TENSIONS BETWEEN NORMATIVE DISCOURSE AND PROCEDURAL ACTING.
1 Clara Cruz Santos, Professor
2 Cristina Albuquerque, Professor
3 Helena Neves Almeida, Professor
1 - 3 Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal
Keywords: social entrepreneurship; innovation; sustainability; fundraising; Social policies.
Abstract. Three social dimensions of resource provision are engaged social management of social entrepreneurship projects: (i) the Economical resources that includes the financing lines and the productivity logics; (ii) the Human resources, that integrates the stakeholders, their characteristics, training and innovation potential and the (iii) Social resources derived from social policies, organizations and social interaction networks. In an ideal context these three actors would function coherently in terms of intervention goals, constituting the grounds to the construction of Social entrepreneurship. However, it’s possible to identify some contradictions, or at least paradoxes, between an innovative normative rhetoric and the principles inherent to the evaluation and approval of concrete social entrepreneurship projects for financing in Portugal. So, our general aim is to understand the links between normative models of social innovation, the way how these reveal specific socio-political-ideological guidelines and how they are operationalised.
STRATEGIES IN SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: DEPICTING ENTREPRENEURIAL ELEMENTS AND BUSINESS PRINCIPLES IN SEOS FROM GERMANY AND BANGLADESH
1 Gorgi Krlev, Centre for Social Investment, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Germany
Keywords: social entrepreneurship, ‘social entrepreneurial organizations’ (SEOs), ‘social entrepreneurship scheme’, hybridity, economic entrepreneurship, non-economic entrepreneurship, strategy, business principles, (social) innovation, cross-cultural, cross-sector
Abstract‘Social Entrepreneurial Organizations’ (SEOs) merge characteristics usually associated with either civil society or the market in a largely unprecedented way. Therefore these hybrid organizations are of increasing interest for interdisciplinary research. The analysis of ten such organizations – five from Germany and five from Bangladesh – based on conducted in-depth interviews reveals that the entrepreneurial dimension is prevailing in both the non-profit and the for-profit elements combined. Additionally business principles are being incorporated in SEO strategies. Consequently unique strategic setups can be identified in such organizations unmatched by traditional classifications of either of the two distinct sectors. Surprisingly strong commonalities can be found in the SEO’s conception across their different fields of activity as well as the culturally diverse backgrounds of Germany and Bangladesh. This paper shows that in both countries innovative models of product or service provision, usually developed by economic entrepreneurs, and business concepts such as ‘customer and competitor orientation’ or ‘unique selling propositions’ are as likely to be found in SEOs as a ‘vanguard role’ in developing social innovation and the striving for societal change of ‘non-economic entrepreneurs’. The Social Entrepreneurship Scheme conceptualized in earlier work aims at capturing the regularly stated ‘blurring of boundaries’ in the light of increasing hybridity of organizations. In the context of this study it builds the framework for classifying the interviewed SEOs and serves as guiding reference for the proceeding discussion.
PROFESSIONALIZATION STRATEGIES OF SOCIAL WORK IN SOCIAL ENTERPRISES BASED ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC RATIOS
1 Rainer Loidl, Professor
2 Wolfgang Laskowski
1 - 2 Department of Social Work and Management, University of Applied Sciences FH JOANNEUM, Austria
Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social enterprise, social work, social management, SROI, performance measurement, cost benefit analysis, profession, profession theory, professionalism.
Abstract. The mission of a social enterprise is to improve the living conditions of individuals and to contribute to social-economic welfare, which are traditionally the agenda of social work. From a sociological theory of profession view and supported by experiences in six case studies on SROI (Social Return on Investment) in social enterprises in Austria we discuss the implementation of socioeconomic performance measurement models as identity-formation and profession development of Social Work. SROI programmatics and semantics are understood as a professionalization strategy for the acquisition of societal acknowledgment. If organizations fail in presenting performances and effectiveness, their legitimacy is put into question and consequently the acknowledgment is discredited. In pursuing both economic and social “double-bottom-lines” social enterprises are challenged to create complex value and performance measurement models and tools and to “signal” performance, efficiency and effectiveness. The model SROI takes into account financial and social value-addedprocesses and supplies a monetary evaluation of both. Recognized language-codes serve to represent social work activities as means of the argumentative logic of efficiency and effectiveness. Through reliability and efficiency representation social work attempts to demonstrate professionalism.
ES+ METHODOLOGY: MAPPING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP
1 Rita Megre, Research Associate
2 Miguel Alves Martins, Founder and Director
3 João Cotter Salvado, Research Associate
1 - 3 Social Entrepreneurship Institute, Portugal
Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship, Research, Methodology, Mapping, Identification, Support
Abstract. The Social Entrepreneurship Institute (IES) in Portugal has developed an innovative methodology called ES+ for the identification and research of Social Entrepreneurship initiatives at the local and regional level. This methodology was created as part of an overall policy to identify and support Social Entrepreneurship initiatives in Portugal, considering Social Entrepreneurship as a solution to yet unresolved social and environmental issues. The goal of this methodology is not only to identify innovative solutions that can be replicated in other regions/countries but also to identify the needs of social entrepreneurs, allowing for an action plan and for the tailoring of IES services, to be able to better serve these social entrepreneurs, empowering them for greater social and environmental impact. In this paper, the ES+ Methodology is described and presented with application to two contrasting Portuguese regions – one mostly urban, near the Portuguese capital and the other mostly rural in the remote Portuguese inland region of Trás-os-Montes.
A CASE STUDY: SEEDS OF AFRICA - THE FLOWERING OF EDUCATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP
1 Christine Farias, Lecturer, Economics and Finance, Zicklin School of Business Baruch College, City University of New York, USA
2 Margaret Sands, Director of Community Development, Seeds of Africa Foundation, Ethiopia
Keywords: Education, Entrepreneurship, Youth, Microloans
Abstract. Education plays a very important role in alleviating poverty and providing opportunity for people in developing countries to break out of their poverty traps. In Ethiopia education is in poor shape. Over three million children do not attend school and those who do attend have to cope with unacceptable levels of teacher-student ratios and limited and narrowly defined curriculum. Ethiopia, one of the world’s poorest nations, also faces an acute shortage of classrooms. Literacy rates are low in general and even lower among women. Less than half of primary school age children attend school with completion rates that are lower than 50%. The situation only gets worse at the secondary school level. About a quarter of children between the ages of 5 and 14 are in the labor force. Our case study focuses on the social enterprise “Seeds of Africa” a community enhancement and development program that works with children, young adults and their families in Adama, Ethiopia. Seeds of Africa was founded by a group of young social activists with the mission of creating long-term self-sustaining models of education and community-centered development for the impoverished youth of Ethiopia. They facilitate the process by providing basic needs such as primary education, tutoring, food supplements and medical care to the students and their families, upgraded and increased teacher training, building a library and technology center to enhance the lives of the community at large and organizing art and theatre programs to enrich the lives of the youth and the community. Seeds of Africa has embraced a ‘progressive’ project-based curriculum emphasizing critical thinking, problem-solving and the love of learning. The youth are considered the “seeds” and with nourishment in terms of the right kind of education they can grow into plants that if well nurtured and given hope can give back to their community by flowering into the future as leaders of change in their communities. A critical aspect of the program is the integration of microloans to families whose children maintain high levels of school attendance. These loans are expected to bring financial stability to each student’s home and will be used to start or expand a business, acting as a vehicle to generate income and improve the lives of each family involved.
THE ROLE OF TEACHING INSTITUTIONS TO PREPARE AND PROMOTE SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS
1 Paula Santos, PhD, Teacher
2 A. Guedes, PhD Student, Teacher
3 M. Fonseca, PhD Student, Teacher
1 - 3 Department of Management and Administration, School of Technology and Management of Lamego, Portugal
Abstract. This research intends to analyse how Universities must have an important role in social entrepreneurship promotion and in the regional and social sustainable development itself. In fact, it's our opinion that students must be advised how can they start up their professional careers in social area and how they can be competitive in the professional world. Thus, academic curricula and teaching methodologies must give them the basic tools so they can have entrepreneurial spirit and to develop innovative programmes/organizations as well as, at the same time, to contribute for a more inclusive society.
Keywords: social entrepreneurship, universities, teaching methodologies, inclusive society.